Comparative Criminal Justice Systems
High crime rates, including racism, have characterized the United States of America. As a result, the government must apply various models that promote the reduction of these crime rates. Policing has been one of the standard methods used by multiple countries to ensure that the country doesn’t fall deep into the urge to control these criminal activities. In addition, these policies play an essential role in maintaining law and order within a country. However, policing affects a country’s criminal justice through its models, authorities, administration policies, external factors, legal foundations, and operational philosophies. Its impacts could be positive or negative, depending on the country’s crime rates. The US criminal justice differs from that of other nations. As a result, this paper aims to compare how policing affects crime between the US and countries such as Russia, China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Canada.
Comparison of The Impacts of Policing on Crimes
Policing in America has developed through the adoption of English systems over the years. In the united states, the criminal justice legal foundation was introduced in 1992 as a public interest and nonprofit organization (Travis&Waul, 2016). The legal foundations helped to maintain the balance between the rights of the accused and the victims. In addition, it purposed to ensure that the accused citizens will have punishments following the constitution. The legal foundation has significantly impacted the rate of crime in the US. According to research, although the environment affects crime rates, ensuring that criminals have swift punishments in criminal law is the most significant discouragement to illegal activities (Banks & Baker, 2015).
In Russia, crimes are regulated by different agencies, but they do not have the criminal justice legal foundations forum that controls crime rates in the country.Article 30 of the constitution of Russia promises compensation for the victims’ destroyed items (Stamatel, 2020). As a result, this has directly reduced the crime rates in Russia.
The legal foundations of China’s criminal justice have been improved through sufficient laws enacted in 2012 that focus on protecting the defendant’s rights, just as the legal foundation organizations of the US government.
On the other hand, Canada is known to have one of the world’s most vital crime justice systems.The legal foundation of Canada is essential in ensuring Canadians’ basic security, well-being, and efficiency. The well-being of Canada is significantly affected by attempts to make sure that it is a just legislation community with an available, effective, and equitable court system. Improving Canadians’ sense of security in their neighborhoods and faith in the judicial process enhances their life satisfaction and contributes to the country’s success. As a result, it contributes to crime reduction in the country.
Saudi Arabia’s legal system is based on Islamic law for civil and religious cases. According to Shari’ah, a person is deemed innocent until proven guilty. Hence only serious offenses or repeat offenders are likely to receive severe punishment (Ghaziani, 2022). The harsh penalties faced by the offender in Saudi Arabia scare its citizens from practicing criminal acts within the country. Therefore, the judicial and law enforcement system of Saudi Arabia positively impacts the reduction of crimes.
Application of Administration and Authority
Authorities play a crucial role in the maintenance of peace in various countries. They significantly impact crimes in an area. Therefore, this section proposes to discuss the impact of authorities on crimes in the US and Russia. However, in the US, many cases entail abuse of power by the administration on citizens, including police brutality (Alang, 2020).Thus, the country’s crime rates relating to police brutality have increased significantly. However, other criminal acts such as rape cases, drug abuse, human trafficking, and money laundering have been reduced with time through the mandate given to police officers.
Although Russia has a flawed criminal justice system, it has adopted effective measures of safeguarding public safety, maintaining social security; preventing and combating illicit activities and petty misdemeanors; and disclosing illegal conductin its administration.
In comparing the impact of a police officer on crimes between Canada and the United States, it is necessary to include the registration process and some police officers in these countries. There is a relationship between a low number of police officers and high crime rates. The significant difference in these crime rates may arise from the number of police officers, the registration of crimes process, and the difference in reporting crimes to the police officers (Aroma, 2008). However, the registration system in Canada does not include petty crimes in the record books, making it challenging to manage the crimes.
Power is the source of all evil in Saudi Arabia since the authority can escape their brutal acts easily (Ghaziani, 2022). In Saudi Arabia, there have been increased brutality cases of house help. The application of authorities in Saudi Arabia has increased crimes committed by the individuals in power, even though it is meant to reduce criminal activities.
On the other hand, in China, authorities have the right to detain, question, and imprison offenders and apply regulatory repressive and disciplinary actions on individuals and entities who violate China’s rules regulating crimes against civil safety. In 1995, the police announced 2.96 million petty crimes and 1.69 million criminal prosecutions. 1.35 million court prosecutions were closed(Travis&Waul, 2016).
Applied models in criminal justice can either be effective or ineffective in reducing crime rates. There are two types of models used in the US criminal justice system, due process and crime control. The due process model focuses on ensuring fairness and justice in the judiciary system by preventing it from breaking constitutional rights. The crime control model, on the other hand, aims to have an effective strategy that compresses crime rates and promotes public safety. These models are essential in reduction since they cover two areas, the conservatism and liberalized aspects of crimes (Cole et al., 2021). In cases where police officers are offered more power, the government protects its citizens through the due process model.
At the same time, the crime control model is used to scare away citizens from their criminal activities. In Russia, the crime control model emphasizes the police officer’s investigative acts and ability to construct an account of things that happened during the crime scene. The due process model dismisses any claim that has not been subjected to the truth. These models have helped reduce crimes in Russia.
Crime rates are higher in North America than in other European countries. These results show that European countries have more effective models incorporated into their criminal justice systems than the US.
Child maltreatment or deviancy that does not break the law wouldn’t register in the court system in China, contrary to the procedures of the juvenile justice system in nations like Germany, Japan, and the US. Instead, public administrators like the officers would manage such cases and be subordinate to punitive power like instructional initiatives, safety precautions, and harsh actions, including punishment (Zhang & Ginsburg, 2019).
External factors of policing may harm crimes. In the United States, Canada, and Russia, external factors, including political ideologies and instability, impact the rate of criminal activities. For instance, if a country experiences political instability, then there is a high probability that the crime rate in this country will increase. Furthermore, economic and demographic changes can be associated with the crime rates of a nation.
In recognizing the profound socioeconomic changes that the nation has undergone over its forty years of liberalization and deregulationand addressing appeals from civic ways to improve the legal system and fundamental human rights, the Chinese leadership has confronted one of its most significant difficulties.For example, if countries like China choose to increase housing prices, the crime rates of that country will increase. Moreover, countries like Saudi Arabia have high crime rates due to the fact that they face various socioeconomic challenges, rivalry and wars.
A report discovered that a variety of environmental parameters had an impact on both murder and suicides in Japan, even after adjusting for metropolitan, annual, and quarterly impacts (Takahashi, 2017). In example, significantly higher temperatures were associated with greater violent behavior and more deaths. It is safe to conclude that the economic, political and social external factors can undermine the safety of the public.
It is important to note that, although the crime justice systems aim at controlling the operations within the law implementers, the regulation of the impacts associated with the crimes is difficult. In addition, the court systems in the countries discussed above focus on safeguarding its citizenâ€™s safety and maintaining peace and order in the country. The criminal justice systems can be improved through police accountability, introducing new administrative policies and community supervision. In conclusion, the impacts on various policing methods differ in the various countries discussed above due to the demographic factors.
Alang, S. (2020). Police brutality and the institutional patterning of stressors. American Journal of Public Health, 110(11), 1597-1598. https:// doi.10.2105/AJPH.2020.305937
Aromaa, K. (2008). Crime and Criminal Justice Systems in Europe and North America 1995-2004. M. Heiskanen (Ed.). Helsinki: HEUNI.
Banks, C., & Baker, J. (2015). Comparative, international, and global justice: Perspectives from criminology and criminal justice. Sage Publications.
Buil-Gil, D., Moretti, A., & Langton, S. H. (2022). The accuracy of crime statistics: Assessing the impact of police data bias on geographic crime analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 18(3), 515-541.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11292-021-09457-y
Cole, G. F., Smith, C. E., &DeJong, C. (2021). Criminal justice in America. Cengage Learning.
Ghaziani, M. A., (2022). A Reflection on the Human Rights Attitude and International Law Approaches of Iran and Saudi Arabia. Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 1-17.https://doi.org/10.1080/25765949.2022.2128133
Stamatel, J. P. (2020). Criminal Law and Criminal Behavior. Examining Crime and Justice around the World, 1.
Takahashi, R. (2017). Climate, crime, and suicide: Empirical evidence from Japan. Climate Change Economics, 8(01), 1750003.https://www.jstor.org/stable/90001937
Travis, J., &Waul, M. (2016). Reflections on the crime decline: Lessons for the future?https://policycommons.net/artifacts/636707/reflections-on-the-crime-decline/1618005/
Zhang, T., & Ginsburg, T. (2019). China’s turn toward law. Va. J. Int’l L., 59, 306.https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/vajint59&div=12&id=&page=
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