Curriculum Design, Assessment, and Evaluation in Health Professional Education
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Curriculum Design, Assessment, and Evaluation in Health Professional Education
Curriculum development, testing, and evaluation are essential elements of the educational process in health professional education. They offer the framework for the instruction, evaluation, and assessment of students. The curriculum serves as the process’s blueprint. It includes the educational program’s aims and objectives and the strategies for achieving them.The process of establishing whether or not the curriculum’s objectives have been attained is called assessment. It is carried out through assessments such as tests and exams.Judging something’s worth or value is the process of evaluation. Evaluation is used to assess the efficacy of the curriculum and the educational process in the field of health professional education.
The following are some of the principles of curriculum design;Encourage the fullness of experiences. It is crucial to take into account the full range of experiences that kids will have while developing a successful curriculum. The totality of experiences principle states that when creating learning opportunities, all facets of a student’s experience should be taken into account. This encompasses not only what pupils learn in school but also what they experience at home, in the community, and in other contacts(Bajpai et al., 2019, 78). Thought should be given to the entirety of experiences while developing an effective curriculum to ensure that all students have the chance to learn and develop in significant ways. Being child-centered is the second tenet. A successful curriculum must adhere to the child-centeredness principle because it acknowledges that each kid is an individual with specific requirements and interests. Additionally, it acknowledges that kids learn best when they are actively involved in what they are learning(Grant, 2018, 90) . With the use of a child-centered curriculum, teachers may adapt their lessons to each student’s unique needs. This not only guarantees that all kids can learn, but it also encourages a love of learning in every kid.
The third tenet is encouraging creativity and conservation. Effective teaching is built on sound curriculum design ideas. Two fundamental elements that are necessary for the building of an effective curriculum are conservation and innovation. We should use resources wisely and creatively, according to the conservation concept. New concepts and methods can be investigated thanks to the creativity principle. A curriculum must take into account both conservation and innovation in order to be successful. Enhancing Integration is the fourth principle(Kern et al., 2018,76). One of the most important design concepts for a successful curriculum is the notion of integration. Curriculums are integrated across topic areas when they are adequately constructed. The formation of a more thorough knowledge of concepts and ideas is made possible by this integration. Additionally, it supports the development of analytical and problem-solving abilities. In addition, by giving students the chance to collaborate on group projects, the integrated curriculum can aid in the development of their social and emotional abilities.
It enhances mental discipline, according to the sixth principle. One of the fundamental tenets of an excellent curriculum is mental discipline. In order to ensure that pupils can study effectively and efficiently, this principle emphasizes the significance of fostering their mental discipline(Swanwick, 2018,32). Because it enables pupils to concentrate on the subject at hand and persevere in their efforts despite interruptions or setbacks, mental discipline is crucial for learning. Mental discipline also aids in the development of critical and logical thinking as well as problem-solving abilities in students. It takes a lot of time and patience on the part of educators to gradually create mental discipline in students. But the advantages that pupils gain from its cultivation make the work worthwhile. Our pupils become lifelong learners who are capable of great things by developing a feeling of mental discipline in them.
The health industry can make use of a variety of modern models and methods for assessment and evaluation. The type of health service being offered, the nature of the health condition being addressed, and the resources available will all influence the model or strategy that should be used in a given caseThe Outcome-Based Evaluation (OBE) model is one strategy that might be applied in the healthcare industry. Instead of the method or inputs, this approach focuses on evaluating the results of a health intervention. When attempting to evaluate the efficacy of a health intervention, this method may be helpful as it enables a more direct comparison of outcome. The Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) model is another strategy that might be applied in the healthcare industry. In order to analyze a health intervention’s total cost-effectiveness, this model weighs its benefits and costs. This method might be helpful when attempting to compare several health therapies or evaluate the ongoing cost-effectiveness of a health intervention.
The Health Impact Assessment (HIA) model is an additional strategy that might be applied in the healthcare industry. This model evaluates a suggested health intervention’s possible effects on health.
It emphasizes definite health objectives and associated behavioral results. Clear health-related objectives and behavioral outcomes that are directly related to these objectives are characteristics of an effective curriculum design(Parson et al., 2018,65). The behavioral consequences are directly correlated with instructional tactics and learning opportunities.
Discuss your personal values, attitudes, and beliefs. Positive attitudes, values, and beliefs that support healthy behaviors are fostered by a successful curriculum(Parson et al., 2018,65). It offers instructional strategies and learning opportunities that inspire students to critically analyze their own viewpoints, thoughtfully consider fresh justifications for attitudes and beliefs that support good health, and form favorable perceptions of protective behaviors and unfavorable perceptions of risky behaviors (Grant, 2018,34).Examines individual group norms that encourage conduct that promotes health. An effective curriculum offers instructional strategies and learning opportunities to support students in accurately assessing the level of risk-taking behavior among their peers (for instance, how many of their peers use illegal drugs), correcting misconceptions of peer and social norms, highlighting the importance of good health, and reinforcing attitudes and beliefs that promote good health(Kern et al., 2018 54).
It is theory-based and supported by research. Theoretical frameworks (such as social cognition theory and social inoculation theory) that have had a significant impact on young people’s health-related behaviors serve as the foundation for instructional tactics and learning experiences in an effective curriculum(Van Nuland et al., 2020,65). The most effective curricula cover health determinants, social factors, attitudes, values, norms, and abilities that have an impact on particular health-related behaviors in addition to cognitive elements.
A student’s interests and strengths are used to create a personalized learning experience through the use of learner-centered teaching, also referred to as the student-centered approach(Grant, 2018,44). This approach is based on the concepts of fostering classroom community and utilizing cooperative learning to build on student strengths.
Learner-centered teaching puts an emphasis on students’ interests and passions while also showcasing their talents. This teaching strategy shifts students away from passive learning in the classroom, when they sit at desks and listen to the teacher lecture, and toward active learning(Swanwick, 2018, 48). Students that engage in active learning discuss about their learning, share strategies, and work together to solve problems and understand topics. When engaging in learner-centered teaching, several different instructional strategies are used.
Learning that is active and learner-centered. The idea of active learning is central to the learner-centered approach. With this approach, the student assumes learning accountability rather than the teacher. With this approach, the teacher’s position completely shifts and students must collaborate to learn the material. The teacher is no longer the main source of instruction in learning-centered teaching. Instead of delivering knowledge, he or she acts as a facilitator of learning. Role-playing, group projects, peer teaching, and discussions are typical techniques for encouraging active learning.
In order to achieve a finished output, students can rely on one other’s strengths when working on group assignments. While some students could thrive at presentations, others might be more comfortable with design elements or the creation of images (Grant, 2018,45). Each student can contribute significantly to group work in a way that benefits the team.Student-centered teaching and cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is an essential element of a learner-centered teaching environment. Teachers that employ this strategy are encouraged to facilitate peer teaching, peer evaluation, and group problem-solving among their pupils. By imparting their knowledge to others, students can display their understanding and foster a pleasant learning environment in the classroom. Cooperative learning enables students to contribute to a project that is focused on the team by utilizing their own abilities. For instance, a weak writer who enjoys art might be matched with a stronger writer when writing about scientific subjects, etc. With this type of team dynamic, the group can create posters, visuals, or presentations with the writing prowess as well as the incorporation of greater artistic abilities(Swanwick, 2018,65).
Inductive teaching and learning is another instructional style used in the learner-centered approach. The order of instruction is switched around in this tactic. In a conventional lesson, the teacher introduces a general principle or concept, and the pupils apply it to more examples. When teaching inductively, examples of the subject matter are initially given to the students. In order to understand the subject, they start by going over the examples and generalizing the answer(Swanwick, 2018, 23).
Interprofessional education (IPE) is defined as “opportunities when two or more professions learn from and about one other to increase collaboration and the quality of care” in one common definition. The issues of interprofessional education have been addressed by the Leonardo project in health and social care, known as the European Interprofessional Education Network (EIPEN). In addition to promoting best practices in interprofessional learning and teaching in the fields of health and social care (Parson et al., 2018, 12), the EIPEN project aims to create a transnational network of universities and companies in the six participating countries. IPE gives students and practitioners the chance to learn from, alongside, and about one another while undergoing qualifying and post-qualifying training as well as in their practice. IPE in health and social care includes the education and training of practitioners in human and animal medicine, dentistry, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, pharmacy and all other health professions including public and environmental health and health promotion, and social work. The outcomes of the EIPEN Project will provide means, material and guidelines for the enhancement of professional education in the multi-disciplinary field of Health Informatics (Grant, 2018, 500. The methodology on the development of the Greek Interprofessional Network was based on a series of workshops aiming to document the educational process in healthcare institutes and universities, followed by the assessment of the needs for the development of an interprofessional environment. The outcomes will provide means, material and guidelines for the enhancement of professional education in the multi-disciplinary field of Health Informatics.
There are a number of contemporary assessment and evaluation models and approaches that could be used in the health sector. Some of these include:The Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D) ModelParson et al., 2018, 33)This model focuses on the scientific study of health care delivery and outcomes. It can be used to assess the effectiveness of health care interventions, as well as to identify areas in need of improvement. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program: This program supports the development of new, innovative approaches to assess the effectiveness of health care interventions.The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI): This institute funds research that compares the effectiveness of different health care approaches.The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ): This agency funds research to improve the quality of health care and to reduce costs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This agency funds research to prevent and control disease, injury, and disability(Grant, 2018, 45). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)Parson et al., 2018, 56). This agency regulates food, drugs, and medical devices. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid
It is crucial to take into account the many sector stakeholders when developing an evaluation instrument for the health sector. Patients, families, carers, healthcare professionals, insurers, and policymakers are a few of these stakeholders. The evaluation tool should be created to determine how well the health sector meets these stakeholders’ needs. The evaluation tool should also be able to point out areas where the healthcare industry can improve(Kruger & Tennant, 2012,31).The evaluation instrument should be created to evaluate how well the curriculum in the health sector promotes student learning. It needs to be able to point out curriculum elements that want improvement and offer suggestions for how to change the curriculum to better serve pupils(“Learning and design processes in a Gamified learning design,” 2018, 210.In order to be effective, a curriculum must support student learning and be in line with the sector’s aims and objectives. It should be supported by research and data, flexible and responsive to changing student demands.Questions about the curriculum’s alignment with industry aims and objectives, its success in fostering student learning, its adaptability and flexibility, and its research and evidence base should all be included in the evaluation method(Kruger & Tennant, 2012,65).
In conclusion a curriculum consists of more than just a list of courses or subjects. It is a method of offering lessons and experiences that equip students for careers as health professionals in the future. The needs of the professors, the students, and the healthcare system must all be taken into consideration while creating an effective curriculum. To make sure that it is accomplishing its objectives, it must be monitored and assessed continually.
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